I’ve wanted to do a piece on sex workers for a long time (the first draft of this was in November of 2011 to give you an idea). Sex work (prostitution) is a tricky topic in feminism with no clear conclusion either way and good arguments on both sides. I think my problem is I’m not entirely sure where I fall, there’s just too many issues with both sides. I’m breaking this piece into bullet points of pros and cons. Ultimately I favor decriminalizing and legalizing prostitution…but it’s really a lesser of two evils, and I’m not sure I’m comfortable with my own position even.
1. First, let’s stop pretending it’s an merely an issue of choice. “If a woman wants to sell her body for sex, it’s her body and she should not face legal penalty for doing so.” Well, yes, if it were that simple, then there wouldn’t even be a question. But it’s not that simple. Most women working as sex workers were sexually abused as children and/or raped before the age of 15 with a very large number having been raped as a child by at least 3 perpetrators. Sex workers are disproportionately impoverished with 75% being homeless or previously homeless. 89% of prostitutes want to leave sex work but have no other means of survival. Certainly there are some women who are not financially desperate, victims of childhood sex abuse, and work in sex 100% by choice, but they are exceedingly rare. These numbers do NOT back up the claim that women are entering this profession by choice. To quote Catharine MacKinnon, “If prostitution is a free choice, why are the women with the fewest choices most often found doing it?” The choice between starvation and homelessness or selling your body isn’t really a choice. Desperation, abuse, force, and coercion are not choosing to be a sex worker. In fact, in some cases it’s rape. Legalization does absolutely nothing to solve these issues, but it doesn’t exacerbate them either.
2. …but let’s also recognize that in areas where prostitution is legal (even if Johning isn’t), the women in the industry have comparably better lives. Nevada’s 12 county legal prostitution isn’t without problems, but the sex workers in that area are regulated and legally protected. Pimping is still illegal, prostituting is not. Women who are raped by their Johns can go to police (for those not in the know, prostitution in legal brothels is typically done in a pay-by-service model wherein a sex worker can deny clients and/or specific services at any time for any reason and acts and prices are negotiated beforehand). Johns are required to wear condoms for all sex services. Sex workers are regularly tested for STDs. Brothels are strictly forbidden from recruitment or encouraging women (or men) to become sex workers. But despite these laws there are still abuses and women are still exploited. It’s not a good industry, it’s just comparably better than street work. Perhaps a better example is the Swedish system that makes the purchaser the criminal, not the woman. Since the change in prostitution laws and crackdown on Johns took place, Sweden’s sexual assault rate dropped to the lowest in Europe. By 2008 the prostitution rate dropped by half. Women could now go to police when they were being exploited and abused.
3. Keeping prostitution illegal hasn’t stopped prostitution from occurring. Legalizing prostitution doesn’t remove danger but it sure as hell doesn’t help abused sex workers seek justice either. Women performing sex work illegally are often told “what did you expect?” when trying to report rape or abuse. However, legalizing prostitution has the burden of further solidifying the patriarchal norm of considering a woman’s body not her own property. Ultimately as long as there is poor job opportunity, sexual abuse of minors, poor education, and cyclical poverty, exploitative prostitution will exist. By making prostitution legal (but not necessarily Johns) and keeping pimping illegal it is a step towards helping sex workers have personal autonomy and more control over the industry they work in. In Spain, which has very lax laws regarding sex work, sex trafficking is rampant, so legalization doesn’t even necessarily decrease the exploitation factor.
4. The prevalence of violent pornography has made prostitution more dangerous, not less, and legalization can possibly make it worse. Nearly all porn contains anal sex and a huge amount has verbal and/or physical abuse of the actress. This wasn’t the case even as recently as the 1990s. Because prostitutes are often treated by Johns as outlets for sexual gratification they fantasize about or cannot get at home, sex work has taken a darker turn as well. It is in most cases not only not really a “chosen” career, but also a violent and dangerous career. Moves to make condom usage mandatory in pornography was met with serious outcries from industry big-wigs and from porn viewers who complained that it ruins “the fantasy,” completely ignoring the fact that it’s real people with real health concerns performing. Sex entertainment, sex work, and sex trafficking are very closely intertwined. The problem with legalization is that prostitution will become more like porn in that since services are more openly shown, women will more or less be forced to perform acts they might not even want to do (such as anal sex or violent BDSM) or risk losing business. We’ve already established that most women in sex work do not want to be prostitutes in the first place, adding the element of violent sex acts just to stay “employed” is another layer of horror.
5. …but legalization and regulation allows women to openly network, form support systems, and even unionize. Prostitution is not going away. It’s not. It’s idealist to say “prostitution should be illegal because it’s exploitative and makes women property.” Yes it’s exploitative, yes it makes women’s body into property, and both of those things are bad but keeping it illegal only serves to make former sex workers transitions into the non-sex job force more difficult because it adds a criminal record to their history. Slut shaming related sex discrimination already occurs in the workplace, having a sex-work offense on a permanent record only serves to keep women out of regular employment. There is an international sex workers union, it would be nice for sex workers in the US and around the world to have access to this group and the legal protections it advocates.
In the end, we should work to abolish prostitution…but we should legalize sex work first. The end goal should be to stop sex trade because it’s rooted in the sexual abuse of minors and taking advantage of impoverished women. We need to work towards ending what causes prostitution in the first place, but we can give sex workers tools to keep themselves safer until that is achieved.
March 19th, 2013 at 13:32
Excellent points. I reluctantly agree with you, but feel that your first point is often forgotten or ignored– we’re not talking about the college grad from Freakanomics in the vast majority of cases.
I once went to a women’s health center in Vienna (prostitution is legal here) where the sex workers got their weekly ‘clean bill of health’ stamp. It was honestly one of the most depressing things I’ve ever seen; most of the women were skeletal, drug addled, or ill. None spoke German. I seriously doubt that most could get any other work in Austria.
March 19th, 2013 at 13:43
I have very little academic knowledge and solid numbers with prostitution in Europe, but the impression I get from many people is that a lot of the sex workers are Eastern European migrants, some of whom are trafficked in underage and forced into the industry.
In the Millennium Trilogy Steig Larsson had a major criticism of the Swedish laws in the story (basically that they made things better for Swedish sex workers but not for trafficked women from Estonia/Russia/Ukraine and that the lower numbers were bull). I worry that these women are ignored because people think everything’s “better” in countries with legal prostitution – a lot of these women seem to have no choice at all between starve or be a sex worker, which isn’t right.